Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Summary of Operations
Hanmi Financial Corporation (“Hanmi Financial,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is the holding company of Hanmi Bank (the “Bank”).
The Bank is a California state-chartered financial institution insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”). The Bank is a state nonmember bank and the FDIC is its primary federal bank regulator. The California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation is the Bank's primary state bank regulator.
The Bank’s primary operations are related to traditional banking activities, including the acceptance of deposits and originating loans and investing in securities. The Bank is a community bank conducting general business banking, with its primary market encompassing the Korean-American and other ethnic communities. The Bank’s full-service offices are located in markets where many of the businesses are run by immigrants and other minority groups. The Bank’s client base reflects the multi-ethnic composition of these communities. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank maintained a network of 35 full-service branch offices and 9 loan production offices in California, Texas, Illinois, Virginia, New Jersey, New York, Colorado, Georgia and Washington State.
Basis of Presentation
The accounting and reporting policies of Hanmi Financial and subsidiaries conform, in all material respects, to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and general practices within the banking industry. The information set forth in the following notes is presented on a continuing operations basis. The following is a summary of the significant accounting policies consistently applied in the preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Principles of Consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Hanmi Financial and its wholly-owned subsidiary, the Bank and Hanmi Financial Corporation Statutory Trust I. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in restrictions on travel and gatherings and restricted business activities. As a result, the operations and business results of the Company could be materially adversely affected. The extent to which the COVID-19 crisis may impact business activity or investment results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions required to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others. This uncertainty may impact the accuracy of our significant estimates, which includes the allowance for credit losses, the allowance for credit losses related to off-balance sheet items, and the valuation of intangible assets including deferred tax assets, goodwill, and servicing assets.
Certain amounts in the prior years' financial statements and related disclosures were reclassified to conform to the current year presentation with no effect on previously reported net income, stockholders’ equity or cash flows.
Through our branch network and lending units, we provide a broad range of financial services to individuals and companies. These services include demand, time and savings deposits; and commercial and industrial, real estate and consumer lending. While our chief decision makers monitor the revenue streams of our various products and services, operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a company-wide basis. Accordingly, we consider all of our operations to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.
Cash and Due from Banks
Cash and due from banks include cash, deposits with other financial institutions, and federal funds sold. Net cash flows are reported for customer loan and deposit transactions, interest bearing deposits in other financial institutions, and federal funds purchased and repurchase agreements.
Securities are classified into three categories and accounted for as follows:
Substantially all of the securities held by the Company are available for sale debt securities. For available-for-sale debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company first assesses whether it intends to sell, or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value through income. For available-for-sale debt securities that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the Company evaluates whether the decline in fair value has resulted from credit losses or other factors. In making this assessment, management considers the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency, and adverse conditions specifically related to the security, among other factors. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss exists, the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security are compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss is recorded and an allowance for credit losses is established, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis. Any impairment that has not been recorded through an allowance for credit losses is recognized in other comprehensive income.
Changes in the allowance for credit losses are recorded as a provision for (or reversal of) credit loss expense. Losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the uncollectability of an available-for-sale security is confirmed or when either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met.
Accrued interest receivable on available-for-sale debt securities totaled $1.2 million at December 31, 2020 and is excluded from the estimate of credit losses.
Originated loans: Loans are primarily originated by the Company with the intent to hold them for investment and are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of deferred fees and costs. Net deferred fees and costs include nonrefundable loan fees, direct loan origination costs and initial direct costs. Net deferred fees or costs are recognized as an adjustment to interest income over the contractual life of the loans using the effective interest method or taken into income when the related loans are paid off or sold. The amortization of loan fees or costs is discontinued when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status. Interest income is recorded on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the respective loan and includes prepayment penalties. Equipment leases are similar to commercial business loans in that the leases are typically made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flows of the borrower’s business.
Nonaccrual loans and nonperforming assets: Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when, in the opinion of management, the full timely collection of principal or interest is in doubt. Generally, the accrual of interest is discontinued when principal or interest payments become more than 90 days past due, unless management believes the loan is adequately collateralized and is in the process of collection. However, in certain instances, we may place a particular loan on nonaccrual status earlier, depending upon the individual circumstances surrounding the loan’s status. When an asset is placed on nonaccrual, previously accrued but unpaid interest is reversed against current income. Subsequent collections of cash are applied as principal reductions when received, except when the ultimate collectability of principal is probable, in which case interest payments are credited to income. Nonaccrual assets may be restored to accrual status when principal and interest become current and full repayment is expected, which generally occurs after sustained payment of six months. Interest income is recognized on the accrual basis for impaired loans not meeting the criteria for nonaccrual.
Nonperforming assets consist of loans on nonaccrual status, loans 90 days or more past due and still accruing interest, loans restructured with troubled borrowers where the terms of repayment have been renegotiated resulting in a reduction or deferral of interest or principal, other real estate owned (“OREO”), and other repossessed personal property.
Loans held for sale
Loans originated, or transferred from loans receivable, and intended for sale in the secondary market are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or fair market value. Fair market value, if lower than cost, is determined based on valuations obtained from market participants or the value of underlying collateral, calculated individually. A valuation allowance is established if the market value of such loans is lower than their cost and net unrealized losses, if any, are recognized through a valuation allowance by charges to income. Origination fees on loans held for sale, net of certain costs of processing and closing the loans, are deferred until the time of sale and are included in the computation of the gain or loss from the sale of the related loans.
Allowance for credit losses
Prior to January 1, 2020, the Company followed an “incurred loss” approach in determining the allowance for credit losses. On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which replaced the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) approach. See “Accounting Standards Adopted in 2020” for discussion of the Company’s 2020 policy for determining the allowance for credit losses under CECL.
Under the incurred loss methodology, the allowance for loan losses represented management’s estimate of probable incurred losses inherent in the loan portfolio. Management’s estimates were based on: previous loss experience; growth, size and composition of the loan portfolio; the value of collateral; and current economic conditions. These estimates are inherently uncertain and depend on the outcome of future events. The allowance was determined through an analysis involving quantitative calculations based on historic loss rates and qualitative adjustments to account for risk and uncertainties, as well as general allowances and individual impairment calculations for certain individual loans.
For 2019, the Company utilized a 35-quarter look-back period, anchored to the first quarter of 2012, with equal weighting to all quarters. Management determined it was appropriate to anchor the look-back period, in consideration for a prolonged period of low losses and the procyclical nature of provisioning. The anchoring allowed the Bank to better capture the economic cycle while improving the ability to measure losses. For 2018, the Bank utilized a 31-quarter look-back period. The estimated loss emergence period utilized in the Company’s loss migration analysis was 2.5 years. Moreover, the Company reevaluated the qualitative adjustments, adjusting to then-current condition in light of the lengthening of the business cycle and the continued improvement in credit metrics.
To determine general allowance requirements, existing loans were divided into eleven general pools of risk-rated loans as well as three homogeneous loan pools. For risk-rated loans, a migration analysis allocated historical losses by loan pool and risk grade to determine risk factors for potential losses inherent in the loan portfolio. Since the homogeneous loans were bulk graded, the risk grade was not factored into the historical loss analysis. In addition, specific allowances were allocated for loans deemed “nonperforming.”
When determining the appropriate level for allowance for credit losses, management considered qualitative adjustments for any factors that were likely to cause estimated losses associated with the Company’s portfolio to differ from historical loss experience, including, but not limited to, national and local economic and business conditions, volume and geographic concentrations, and problem loan trends.
To systematically quantify the credit risk impact of trends and changes within the loan portfolio, a credit risk matrix was utilized. The qualitative factors were considered on a loan pool by loan pool basis subsequent to, and in conjunction with, a loss migration analysis. The credit risk matrix provided various scenarios with positive or negative impact on the portfolio along with corresponding basis points for qualitative adjustments.
Loans were measured for impairment when it was probable that not all amounts, including principal and interest, were to be collected in accordance with the original contractual terms of the loan agreement. The amount of impairment and any subsequent changes were recorded through the provision for loan losses as an adjustment to the allowance for credit losses. Recoveries were applied to the allowance for credit losses when realized. The Company charged or credited the income statement for changes to the estimated allowance at least quarterly based upon the allowance need.
In general, the Company recognized a charge off when management determined a loan was uncollectable. To determine if a loan should be charged off, possible sources of repayment were analyzed, including the potential for future cash flows from income or liquidation of other assets, the value of any collateral, and the strength of co-makers or guarantors. When these sources did not provide a reasonable probability that principal could be collected in full, the Company fully or partially charged off the loan.
For real estate loans, including commercial term loans secured by collateral, a loan was considered nonperforming if the loan was 90 or more days past due. In a case where the fair value of collateral was less than the loan balance and the borrower had no other assets or income to support repayment, the amount of the deficiency was considered a loss and charged off.
For commercial and industrial loans other than those secured by real estate, if the borrower was in the process of a bankruptcy filing in which the Company was an unsecured creditor or deemed virtually unsecured by lack of collateral equity or lien position and the borrower had no realizable equity in assets and prospects for recovery are negligible, the loan was considered a loss and charged off. Additionally, commercial and industrial unsecured loans that are more than 120 days past due were considered a loss and charged off.
For unsecured consumer loans where the borrower files for bankruptcy, the loan was considered a loss within 60 days of receipt of notification of filing from the bankruptcy court. Other unsecured consumer loans are considered a loss if they were more than 90 days past due. Other events, such as fraud or death result in charge offs being recorded in an earlier period.
Credit Losses on Off-Balance Sheet Credit Exposures
The Company has credit loss exposure for off-balance sheet lending commitments and letters of credit. The Company estimates expected credit losses for off-balance sheet exposures over the contractual period in which it is exposed to credit risk via a contractual obligation to extend credit, unless that obligation is unconditionally cancellable by the Company. The estimate includes consideration of the likelihood that funding will occur and an estimate of expected credit losses on commitments expected to be funded over its estimated life. Adjustments to the allowance for credit losses on off-balance sheet credit exposures is recognized as a provision for credit loss expense.
Individually Evaluated Loans
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-13, impaired loans were measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate or, as a practical expedient, at the loan's observable market price or the fair value of the collateral if the loan was collateral dependent, less estimated costs to sell. If the estimated value of the impaired loan was less than the recorded investment in the loan, the Company charged-off the deficiency against the allowance for loan losses or we established a specific allowance in the allowance for loan losses. Additionally, we excluded from the quarterly migration analysis impaired loans when determining the amount of the allowance for loan losses required for the period.
Under ASU 2016-13, the Company reviews all loans on an individual basis when they do not share similar risk characteristics with loan pools.
Troubled Debt Restructuring
A loan is identified as a TDR when a borrower is experiencing financial difficulties and, for economic or legal reasons related to these difficulties, the Company grants a concession to the borrower in the restructuring that it would not otherwise consider. In order to determine whether a borrower is experiencing financial difficulty, an evaluation is performed of the probability that the borrower will be in payment default on any of its debt in the foreseeable future without the modification. This evaluation is performed under the Company’s internal underwriting policy. The Company has granted a concession when, as a result of the restructuring, it does not expect to collect all amounts due, including principal and/or interest accrued at the original terms of the loan. The concessions may be granted in various forms, including a below-market change in the stated interest rate, a reduction in the loan balance or accrued interest, an extension of the maturity date, or a note split with principal forgiveness. TDRs are reviewed for potential impairment. Generally, a nonaccrual loan that is restructured remains on nonaccrual status for a period of six months to demonstrate that the borrower can perform under the restructured terms. If the borrower’s performance under the new terms is not reasonably assured, the loan remains classified as a nonaccrual loan. Loans classified as TDRs are reported as impaired loans.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the various classes of assets. The ranges of useful lives for the principal classes of assets are as follows:
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be nonperforming, the individual amount to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
Other Real Estate Owned and Repossessed Personal Property
Other real estate owned includes real estate acquired through foreclosure and other real estate holdings that are not used in the operation of the Company’s business. Other repossessed personal property primarily consists of repossessed leasing equipment. Other real estate owned and repossessed personal property are recorded at the lower of cost or fair value less estimated costs to sell. Subsequent declines in fair value are recorded through expense.
Servicing Assets and Servicing liabilities
Servicing assets and servicing liabilities are initially recorded at fair value. The fair values of servicing assets and servicing liabilities represent either the price paid if purchased, or the allocated carrying amounts based on relative values when retained in a sale. Servicing assets and servicing liabilities are amortized in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing income.
The servicing assets and servicing liabilities are recorded based on the present value of the contractually specified servicing fee, net of adequate compensation cost, for the estimated life of the loan, using a discount rate and a constant prepayment rate. Management periodically evaluates the servicing assets and servicing liabilities for impairment. Impairment, if it occurs, is recognized in a valuation allowance in the period of impairment.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other intangible assets consist of acquired intangible assets arising from acquisitions, including core deposit and third-party originator intangibles. The acquired intangible assets are initially measured at fair value and then are amortized on the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives while goodwill is not amortized.
Goodwill and other intangible assets are assessed for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company performed its annual impairment test and determined no impairment existed as of December 31, 2020.
Federal Home Loan Bank Stock
The Bank is a member of the FHLB of San Francisco and is required to own common stock in the FHLB based upon the Bank’s balance of outstanding FHLB advances. FHLB stock is carried at cost and may be sold back to the FHLB at its carrying value. FHLB stock is periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value. Both cash and stock dividends received are reported as dividend income.
Bank-Owned Life Insurance
We have purchased single premium life insurance policies (“bank-owned life insurance”) on certain officers. The Bank and named beneficiaries of various current covered officers are the beneficiaries under each policy. In the event of the death of a covered officer, the Bank and named beneficiaries of the covered officer will receive the specified insurance benefit from the insurance carrier. Bank-owned life insurance is recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due, if any, that are probable at settlement. Under the Split Dollar Death Benefit Agreement, upon death of an active employee, the designated beneficiary(ies) are eligible to receive benefits, which in the aggregate, total $3.4 million.
We provide for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company has invested in limited partnerships formed to develop and operate affordable housing units for lower income tenants throughout California. The partnership interests are accounted for utilizing the proportional amortization method with amortization expense and tax benefits recognized through the income tax provision.
The Company may provide awards of options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, shares granted as a bonus or in lieu of another award, dividend equivalent, other stock-based award or performance award, together with any other right or interest to a participant. Plan participants include executives and other employees, officers, directors, consultants and other persons who provide services to the Company or its related entities. All stock options granted under its stock-based benefit plans have an exercise price equal to the fair market value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant. Stock options granted generally vest based on three to five years of continuous service and expire 10 years from the date of grant. Restricted stock awards under the Plans become fully vested after a certain number of years or after certain performance criteria are met. Performance stock units vest upon achievement of certain market condition criteria and may have dividend equivalent rights associated with them. Hanmi Financial becomes entitled to an income tax deduction in an amount equal to the taxable income reported by the holders of the restricted shares when the restrictions are released and the shares are issued. Restricted shares are forfeited if officers and employees terminate prior to the lapsing of restrictions or if certain market condition criteria are not met. Forfeitures of restricted stock are treated as canceled shares.
Excess tax benefits from exercise or vesting of share-based awards are included as a reduction in provision for income tax expense in the period in which the exercise or vesting occurs.
Earnings per Share
Earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated on both a basic and a diluted basis. Basic EPS excludes dilution and is computed by dividing income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted from the issuance of common stock that then shared in earnings. For diluted EPS, weighted-average number of common shares included the impact of unvested restricted stock under the treasury method.
Unvested restricted stock containing rights to non-forfeitable dividends are considered participating securities prior to vesting and have been included in the earnings allocation in computing basic and diluted EPS under the two-class method.
In January 2019, the Company's Board of Directors adopted a stock repurchase program. Under this repurchase program, the Company may repurchase up to 5.0 percent of its outstanding shares or approximately 1.5 million shares of its common stock. The program permits shares to be repurchased in open market or private transactions, through block trades, and pursuant to any trading plan that may be adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason, including market conditions, the cost of repurchasing shares, the availability of alternative investment opportunities, liquidity, and other factors deemed appropriate. These factors may also affect the timing and amount of share repurchases. The repurchase program does not obligate the Company to purchase any particular number of shares. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company repurchased 135,400 shares of common stock at a cost of $2.2 million under this program.
We use the cost method of accounting for treasury stock. The cost method requires us to record the reacquisition cost of treasury stock as a deduction from stockholders’ equity on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair values of financial instruments are estimated using relevant market information and other assumptions, as more fully disclosed in a separate note. Fair value estimates involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgement regarding interest rates, credit risk, prepayments, and other factors, especially in the absence of broad markets for particular items. Changes in assumptions or in market conditions could significantly affect these estimates.
Certain amounts in the prior years' financial statements and related disclosures were reclassified to conform to the current year presentation with no effect on previously reported net income, stockholders’ equity or cash flows.
Accounting Standards Adopted in 2020
FASB ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which replaced the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as the current expected credit loss methodology. The measurement of expected credit losses under the CECL methodology is applicable to financial assets measured at amortized cost, including loan receivables and held-to-maturity debt securities. It also applies to off-balance sheet credit exposures not accounted for as insurance (loan commitments, standby letters of credit, financial guarantees, and other similar instruments) and net investments in leases recognized by a lessor in accordance with Topic 842 on leases. In addition, ASU 2016-13 made changes to the accounting for available-for sale debt securities.
The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 using the prospective transition approach for debt securities for which the Company would have recognized other-than-temporary impairment prior to January 1, 2020. However, the Company had no such securities and as a result, there was no effect on the balance sheet related to securities from the adoption of ASU 2016-13. As a result, the amortized cost basis remained the same before and after the effective date of ASU 2016-13.
The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 using the modified retrospective approach for loans carried at amortized cost. This approach resulted in a $17.4 million increase to the beginning balance of the allowance for credit losses, a $335,000 decrease to the beginning balance of the allowance for off-balance sheet items, and an after-tax charge of $12.2 million to the beginning balance of retained earnings.
According to ASU 2016-13, the Company was required to measure its expected credit losses of financial assets on a collective (pool) basis when similar risk characteristic(s) exist. The Company segmented the loans primarily by loan types, including the collateral type, loan purpose, contract term, amortization and payment structure, considering that the same type of loans share considerable similar risk characteristics. Depending on the nature of the pool of financial assets with similar risk characteristics, the Company used a DCF method, a PD/LGD method, or a WARM method to estimate expected credit losses.
The Company’s methodologies for estimating the allowance for credit losses considered available relevant information about the collectability of cash flows, including information about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The methodologies applied historical loss information, adjusted for asset-specific characteristics, economic conditions at the measurement date, and forecasts about future economic conditions expected to exist through the contractual lives of the financial assets that were reasonable and supportable, to the identified pools of financial assets with
similar risk characteristics. The Company’s methodologies revert to historical loss rates on a straight-line basis over twelve quarters when reasonable supportable long-term (1 year or more) forecasts cannot be developed.
The Company has disaggregated the portfolios of financial assets into the following material segments of loans or leases with similar risk characteristics using the following methodologies:
At January 1, 2020, the Company used the DCF method to estimate allowances for credit losses for the commercial property, construction, and residential real estate loan portfolios and the commercial and industrial loan portfolio. During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, management determined that, due to model limitations, the regression model that supports the DCF calculation for the commercial property, construction, and residential real estate portfolios did not take into account the high degree of uncertainty of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related government assistance programs on these portfolios. As a result, subsequent to March 31, 2020, the Company determined that the Probability of PD/LGD method was more appropriate for these portfolios. This change did not result in a material impact on the Company’s financial statements. For all loan pools utilizing the DCF method, the Company utilized and forecasted the national unemployment rate as the primary loss driver. The Company also utilized and forecasted either the annualized average return rate from the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries Property Index for commercial real estate loans or the one-year percentage change in the S&P/Case-Shiller U.S National Home Price Index for residential real estate loans as a second loss driver depending on the nature of the underlying loan pool and how well that loss driver correlated to expected future losses.
For all DCF models at January 1, 2020, the Company determined that four-quarters represented a reasonable and supportable forecast period and reverted to a historical loss rate over twelve quarters on a straight-line basis. The Company leveraged quarterly economic projections from the Federal Open Market Committee and the Federal Reserve Economic Database (“FRED”) to inform its loss driver forecasts over the four-quarter forecast period. During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, the Company changed from using the FRED unemployment forecast to the Moody’s unemployment forecast, as Moody’s updates the unemployment forecast on a more frequent and timely basis, and thus provided a more appropriate basis for periodically re-estimating future cash flows. For each of these loan segments, the Company applied an expected loss ratio based on the discounted cash flows adjusted as appropriate for qualitative factors. Qualitative loss factors are based on the Company's judgment of company, market, industry or business specific data, changes in the underlying loan composition of specific portfolios, trends relating to credit quality, delinquency, nonperforming and adversely rated loans, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of economic conditions.
The Company used the PD/LGD method for the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) portfolio to accommodate the unique nature of these loans. Although the PD/LGD methodology is an element of the DCF model, the stand-alone PD/LGD methodology minimizes complications related to the characteristics of SBA loans. A uniqueness of the SBA portfolio is that the U.S. Small Business Administration policy requires servicers to undertake all reasonable collection efforts before charging-off the loan. As a result, the recovery rate for SBA loans tend to be more volatile and not intuitively correlated to economic factors.
The Company used the WARM method to estimate expected credit losses for equipment financing agreements or the equipment lease receivables portfolio. The Company applied an expected loss ratio based on internal historical losses adjusted as appropriate for qualitative factors. The Company's evaluation of market, industry or business specific data, changes in the underlying portfolio composition, trends relating to credit quality, delinquency, nonperforming and adversely rated leases, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of economic conditions informed the estimate of qualitative factors.
As permitted by ASU 2016-13, the Company elected to maintain pools of loans accounted for under ASC 310-30. In accordance with the standard, management did not reassess whether modifications to individual acquired financial assets accounted for in pools were troubled debt restructurings as of the date of adoption.
The Company estimated the allowance for credit losses on loans based on the underlying assets’ amortized cost basis.
In the event that collection of principal becomes uncertain, the Company has policies in place to reverse accrued interest in a timely manner. Therefore, the Company has a policy election to exclude accrued interest from the measurement of allowance for credit losses.
Expected credit losses are reflected in the allowance for credit losses through a charge to credit loss expense. When the Company deems all or a portion of a financial asset to be uncollectible, the appropriate amount is written off and the allowance for credit losses is reduced by the same amount. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance for credit losses when received.
The following table illustrates the allowance for credit losses and the related impact under ASU 2016-13 to the Company as of January 1, 2020.
Section 4013 of the CARES Act, “Temporary Relief From Troubled Debt Restructurings,” The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was signed into law on March 27, 2020. Section 4013 of the CARES Act permits the temporary suspension under U.S GAAP related to TDRs. To qualify, borrowers are required to have been current at December 31, 2019, and the modification is required to have been completed between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of the 60th day after the COVID-19 national emergency and December 31, 2020. On December 27, 2020, the provisions of the CARES Act pertaining to the suspension of TDRs were extended through January 1, 2022. Substantially all of the modifications completed by the Company during year ended December 31, 2020 were modified under the CARES Act and have not been accounted for as TDRs. See Note 3 for further discussion.
FASB ASU 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, Effective January 1, 2020, the Company adopted this standard, which simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill impairment by eliminating the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill (i.e., the current Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Under this ASU, the impairment test is simply the comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount (the current Step 1), with the impairment charge being the deficit in fair value but not exceeding the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The simplified one-step impairment test applies to all reporting units (including those with zero or negative carrying amounts). An entity was to apply the amendments in this ASU on a prospective basis and was required to disclose the nature of and reason for the change in accounting principle upon transition. The Company’s goodwill arose from the purchase of an equipment leasing portfolio in 2016. The equipment leasing portfolio has grown since acquisition, and the Company has concluded no impairment has occurred.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Effective
ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, On March 12, 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04 to ease the potential burden in accounting for reference rate reform. The amendments in ASU 2020-04 are elective and apply to all entities that have contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued due to reference rate reform.
The new guidance provided several optional expedients that reduce costs and complexity of accounting for reference rate reform, including measures to simplify or modify accounting issues resulting from reference rate reform for contract modifications, hedges, and debt securities.
The amendments are effective for all entities from the beginning of an interim period that includes the issuance date of ASU 2020-04. An entity may elect to apply the amendments prospectively through December 31, 2022.
The adoption of this standard is not expected to have material effect on the Company’s operating results or financial condition.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef