Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Operations

Hanmi Financial Corporation (“Hanmi Financial,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is the holding company of Hanmi Bank (the “Bank”).

The Bank is a California state-chartered financial institution, the deposits of which are insured by the FDIC, up to applicable limits. The Bank is a state nonmember bank and the FDIC is its primary federal bank regulator. The California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation is the Bank's primary state bank regulator.

The Bank’s primary operations are related to traditional banking activities, including the acceptance of deposits and originating loans and investing in securities. The Bank is a community bank conducting general business banking, with its primary market encompassing the Korean-American and other ethnic communities. The Bank’s full-service offices are located in markets where many of the businesses are owned by immigrants and other minority groups. The Bank’s client base reflects the multi-ethnic composition of these communities. As of December 31, 2023, the Bank maintained a network of 35 full-service branch offices and eight loan production offices in California, Texas, Illinois, Virginia, New Jersey, New York, Colorado, Georgia and Washington.

Basis of Presentation

The accounting and reporting policies of Hanmi Financial and subsidiaries conform, in all material respects, to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and general practices within the banking industry. The information set forth in the following notes is presented on a continuing operations basis. The following is a summary of the significant accounting policies consistently applied in the preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

Principles of Consolidation

The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Hanmi Financial and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, the Bank, and Hanmi Financial Corporation Statutory Trust I. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Certain amounts in the prior years' financial statements and related disclosures were reclassified to conform to the current year presentation with no effect on previously reported net income, stockholders’ equity or cash flows.

Segment Reporting

Through our branch network and lending units, we provide a broad range of financial products and services to individuals and companies. These products include demand, time and savings deposits; and commercial and industrial, real estate and consumer lending. While our chief decision makers monitor the revenue streams of our various products and services, operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a company-wide basis. Accordingly, we consider all of our operations to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.

Cash and Due from Banks

Cash and due from banks include cash, deposits with other financial institutions, and federal funds sold. Net cash flows are reported for customer loan and deposit transactions, interest bearing deposits in other financial institutions, and federal funds purchased and repurchase agreements.


Securities are classified into three categories and accounted for as follows:

Securities that we have the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as “held to maturity” and reported at amortized cost;
Securities that are bought and held principally for the purpose of selling them in the near future are classified as “trading securities” and reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized in earnings;
Securities not classified as held to maturity or trading securities are classified as “available for sale” and reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are reported either in earnings or as a separate component of stockholders’ equity as accumulated other comprehensive income, net of income taxes.

All of the securities held by the Company are available for sale debt securities. For available for sale debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company first assesses whether it intends to sell, or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell, the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value through income. For available for sale debt securities that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the Company evaluates whether the decline in fair value has resulted from credit losses or other factors. In making this assessment, management considers the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency, and adverse conditions specifically related to the security, among other factors. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss exists, the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security are compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss is recorded and an allowance for credit losses is established, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis. Any impairment that has not been recorded through an allowance for credit losses is recognized in other comprehensive income.

Changes in the allowance for credit losses are recorded as a provision for or recovery of credit loss expense. Losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the risk of default of an available for sale security is confirmed or when either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met.

Accrued interest receivable on available for sale debt securities totaled $3.3 million and $2.4 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and was excluded from the estimate of credit losses.

Loans receivable

Originated loans: Loans (other than SBA loans) are primarily originated by the Company with the intent to hold them for investment and are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of deferred fees and costs. Net deferred fees and costs include nonrefundable loan fees, direct loan origination costs and initial direct costs. Net deferred fees or costs are recognized as an adjustment to interest income over the contractual life of the loans using the effective interest method or taken into income when the related loans are paid off or sold. The amortization of loan fees or costs is discontinued when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status. Interest income is recorded on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the respective loan and includes prepayment penalties. Equipment financing agreements are similar to commercial business loans in that the financing agreements are typically made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flows of the borrower’s business.

Nonaccrual loans and nonperforming assets: Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when, in the opinion of management, the full timely collection of principal or interest is in doubt. Generally, the accrual of interest is discontinued when principal or interest payments become 90 or more days past due, unless management believes the loan is adequately collateralized and is in the process of collection. However, in certain instances, we may place a loan on nonaccrual status earlier, depending upon the individual circumstances surrounding the loan’s status. When an asset is placed on nonaccrual, previously accrued but unpaid interest is reversed against current interest income. Subsequent collections of cash are applied as principal reductions when received, except when the ultimate collectability of principal is probable, in which case interest payments are credited to income. Nonaccrual loans may be restored to accrual status when principal and interest become current and full repayment is expected, which generally occurs after payments of six months.


Nonperforming assets consist of loans on nonaccrual status, loans 90 days or more past due and still accruing interest, and OREO.

Loans held for sale

Loans originated, or transferred from loans receivable, and intended for sale in the secondary market are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or fair market value. Fair market value, if lower than cost, is determined based on valuations obtained from market participants or the value of underlying collateral, calculated individually. A valuation allowance is established if the market value of such loans is lower than their cost and net unrealized losses, if any, are recognized through a valuation allowance by charges to income. Origination fees on loans held for sale, net of certain costs of processing and closing the loans, are deferred until the time of sale and are included in the computation of the gain or loss from the sale of the related loans.

Allowance for credit losses

The Company calculates its allowance for credit losses by estimating expected credit losses on a collective basis for loans that share similar risk characteristics. Loans that do not share similar risk characteristics with other loans are evaluated for credit losses on an individual basis. The Company segments loans primarily by loan types, including the collateral type, loan purpose, contract term, amortization and payment structure, considering that the same type of loans share considerable similar risk characteristics. Depending on the type of the pool of financial assets with similar risk characteristics, the Company uses a DCF method, a PD/LGD method, or a WARM method to estimate expected credit losses.

The Company’s methodologies for estimating the allowance for credit losses consider available relevant information about the collectability of cash flows, including information about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The methodologies apply historical loss information, adjusted for asset-specific characteristics, economic conditions at the measurement date, and forecasts about future economic conditions expected to exist through the contractual lives of the financial assets that were reasonable and supportable, to the identified pools of financial assets with similar risk characteristics. For all methodologies, the Company determined that four quarters represented a reasonable and supportable forecast period and revert to a historical loss rate over twelve quarters on a straight-line basis. The Company leverages quarterly economic projections from the Federal Open Market Committee and Moody’s Analytics to inform its loss driver forecasts over the four-quarter forecast period, utilizing the national unemployment rate forecast as the primary loss driver. The Company applies an expected loss ratio based on internal historical losses adjusted as appropriate for qualitative factors. The Company's evaluation of market, industry or business specific data, changes in the underlying portfolio composition, trends relating to credit quality, delinquencies, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of economic conditions informed the estimate of qualitative factors.

The Company estimated the allowance for credit losses on loans based on the underlying assets’ amortized cost basis. In the event that collection of principal becomes uncertain, the Company has policies in place to reverse accrued interest in a timely manner. Therefore, the Company has a policy to exclude accrued interest from the measurement of allowance for credit losses.

Expected credit losses are reflected in the allowance for credit losses through a charge to credit loss expense. When the Company deems all or a portion of a financial asset to be uncollectible, the appropriate amount is written off and the allowance for credit losses is reduced by the same amount. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance for credit losses when received.

Credit Losses on Off-Balance Sheet Credit Exposures

The Company has credit loss exposure for off-balance sheet lending commitments. The Company estimates expected credit losses for off-balance sheet exposures over the contractual period in which it is exposed to credit risk via a contractual obligation to extend credit, unless that obligation is unconditionally cancellable by the Company. The estimate includes consideration of the likelihood that funding will occur and an estimate of expected credit losses on commitments expected to be funded over its estimated life. Adjustments to the allowance for credit losses on off-balance sheet credit exposures is recognized as a provision for credit loss expense.

Individually Evaluated Loans

Individually evaluated loans are measured for expected credit losses based on the present value of expected cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate, the observable market price, or the fair value of collateral. The allowance for collateral dependent loans is calculated as the difference between the outstanding loan balance and the value of the collateral as determined by recent appraisals, less estimated costs to sell. The allowance for collateral dependent loans varies based on the collateral coverage of the loan at the time of the designation as nonperforming. We continue to monitor the collateral coverage on these loans on a quarterly basis, based on recent appraisals, and adjust the allowance accordingly.

Premises and Equipment

Premises and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the various classes of assets. The ranges of useful lives for the principal classes of assets are as follows:


Buildings and improvements

10 to 30 years

Furniture and equipment

3 to 10 years

Leasehold improvements

Term of lease or useful life, whichever is shorter


3 to 7 years


Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

We review long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be nonperforming, the individual amount to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.

Other Real Estate Owned and Repossessed Personal Property

Other real estate owned includes real estate acquired through foreclosure and other real estate holdings that are not used in the operation of the Company’s business. Repossessed personal property consists of equipment repossessed on defaulted equipment financing agreements. Other real estate owned and repossessed personal property are recorded at the lower of cost or fair value less estimated costs to sell. Subsequent declines in fair value are recorded through expense.

Servicing Assets

Servicing assets are initially recorded at fair value, which represents the price paid, and amortized in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing income.

Servicing assets are recorded based on the present value of the contractually specified servicing fee, net of adequate compensation cost, for the estimated life of the loan, using a discount rate and a constant prepayment rate. Management periodically evaluates the servicing assets for impairment. Impairment, if it occurs, is recognized in a valuation allowance in the period of impairment.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill and other intangible assets consist of acquired intangible assets arising from acquisitions, including core deposit and third-party originator intangibles. The acquired intangible assets are initially measured at fair value and then are amortized on the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives while goodwill is not amortized.

Goodwill and other intangible assets are assessed for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company performed its annual impairment test and determined no impairment existed as of December 31, 2023.

Federal Home Loan Bank Stock

The Bank is a member of the FHLB of San Francisco and is required to own common stock in the FHLB based upon the Bank’s balance of outstanding FHLB advances. FHLB stock is carried at cost and may be sold back to the FHLB at its carrying

value. FHLB stock is periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value. Both cash and stock dividends received are reported as dividend income.

Bank-Owned Life Insurance

We have purchased single premium life insurance policies (“bank-owned life insurance”) on certain current and former officers. The Bank and named beneficiaries of various current and former covered officers are the beneficiaries under each policy. In the event of the death of a covered officer, the Bank and named beneficiaries of the covered officer will receive the specified insurance benefit from the insurance carrier. Bank-owned life insurance is recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due, if any, that are probable at settlement. Under the Split Dollar Death Benefit Agreements, upon death of an active or former employee, the designated beneficiary(ies) are eligible to receive benefits, which in the aggregate, totaled $2.5 million at December 31, 2023.

Revenue Recognition

ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), established a principles-based approach to recognizing revenue that applies to all contracts other than those covered by other authoritative U.S. GAAP guidance. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are also required. The standard’s core principle is that a company shall recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In doing so, companies generally are required to use more judgment and make more estimates than under prior guidance. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation.

Since the guidance does not apply to revenue associated with financial instruments, including loans and securities that are accounted for under GAAP, the new guidance did not have an impact on revenue most closely associated with our financial instruments, including interest income and expense. The Company completed its overall assessment of revenue streams and review of related contracts potentially affected by the ASU, including revenue streams associated with our noninterest income. Based on this assessment, the Company concluded that ASU 2014-09 did not change the method in which the Company currently recognizes revenue for these revenue streams.

The Company's noninterest income primarily includes service charges on deposit accounts, trade finance and other service charges and fees, servicing income, bank-owned life insurance income and gains or losses on sale of SBA loans and securities. Based on our assessment of revenue streams related to the Company's noninterest income, we concluded that the Company's performance obligations for such revenue streams are typically satisfied as services are rendered. If applicable, the Company records contract liabilities, or deferred revenue, when payments from customers are received or due in advance of providing services to customers, and records contract assets when services are provided to customers before payment is received or before payment is due. The Company’s noninterest revenue streams are largely based on transactional activities and since the Company generally receives payments for its services during the period or at the time services are provided, there are no contract asset or receivable balances as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. Consideration is often received immediately or shortly after the Company satisfies its performance obligations and revenue is recognized.

The Company also completed its evaluation of certain costs related to these revenue streams to determine whether such costs should be presented as expenses or contra-revenue (i.e., gross versus net) and concluded that our Consolidated Statements of Income do not include any revenue streams that are impacted by such gross versus net provisions of the standard.

Income Tax

We provide for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

The Company has invested in limited partnerships formed to develop and operate affordable housing units for lower income tenants throughout California. The partnership interests are accounted for utilizing the proportional amortization method with amortization expense and tax benefits recognized through the income tax provision.

Share-Based Compensation

The Company may provide awards of options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, shares granted as a bonus or in lieu of another award, dividend equivalents, other stock-based awards, or performance awards, together with any other right or interest to a participant. Plan participants may include executives and other employees, officers, directors, consultants and other persons who provide services to the Company or its related entities. All stock options granted under its stock-based benefit plans have an exercise price equal to the fair market value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant. Stock options granted generally vest based on three to five years of continuous service and expire 10 years from the date of grant. Restricted stock awards become fully vested after a certain number of years or after certain performance criteria are met. Performance stock units vest upon achievement of certain criteria and may have dividend equivalent rights associated with them. Hanmi Financial becomes entitled to an income tax deduction in an amount equal to the taxable income reported by the holders of the restricted shares when the restrictions are released and the shares are issued. Restricted shares are forfeited if officers and employees terminate employment prior to the lapsing of restrictions or if certain market condition criteria are not met. Forfeitures of restricted stock are treated as canceled shares.

Excess tax benefits from the exercise or vesting of share-based awards are included as a reduction in the provision for income tax expense in the period in which the exercise or vesting occurs.

Earnings per Share

Earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated on both a basic and a diluted basis. Basic EPS excludes dilution and is computed by dividing income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted from the issuance of common stock that then shared in earnings. For diluted EPS, the weighted-average number of common shares included the impact of unvested restricted stock under the treasury method.

Unvested restricted stock containing rights to non-forfeitable dividends are considered participating securities prior to vesting and have been included in the earnings allocation in computing basic and diluted EPS under the two-class method.

Treasury Stock

In January 2019, the Company's board of directors adopted a stock repurchase program, under which the Company may repurchase up to 5.0% of its then outstanding shares, or approximately 1.5 million shares of its common stock. The program permits shares to be repurchased in open market or private transactions, through block trades, and pursuant to any trading plan that may be adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason, including market conditions, the cost of repurchasing shares, the availability of alternative investment opportunities, liquidity, and other factors deemed appropriate. These factors may also affect the timing and amount of share repurchases. The repurchase program does not obligate the Company to purchase any particular number of shares. During the year ended December 31, 2023, there were 250,000 shares repurchased, for a total cost of $4.1 million.

We use the cost method of accounting for treasury stock. The cost method requires us to record the reacquisition cost of treasury stock as a deduction from stockholders’ equity on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair values of financial instruments are estimated using relevant market information and other assumptions, as more fully disclosed in a separate note. Fair value estimates involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment regarding interest rates, credit risk, prepayments, and other factors, especially in the absence of broad markets for particular items. Changes in assumptions or in market conditions could significantly affect these estimates.

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”), provides the disclosure requirements for derivatives and hedging activities with the intent to provide users of financial statements with an enhanced understanding of: (a) how and why an entity uses derivative instruments, (b) how the entity accounts for derivative instruments and related hedged items, and (c) how derivative instruments and related hedged items affect an entity’s financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Further, qualitative disclosures are required that explain the Company’s objectives and strategies for using derivatives, as well as quantitative disclosures about the fair value of and gains and losses on derivative instruments, and disclosures about credit-risk-related contingent features in derivative instruments.

As required by ASC 815, the Company records all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative, whether the Company has elected to designate a derivative in a hedging relationship and apply hedge accounting and whether the hedging relationship has satisfied the criteria necessary to apply hedge accounting. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability, or firm commitment attributable to a particular risk, such as interest rate risk, are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges. Derivatives may also be designated as hedges of the foreign currency exposure of a net investment in a foreign operation. Hedge accounting generally provides for the matching of the timing of gain or loss recognition on the hedging instrument with the recognition of the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk in a fair value hedge or the earnings effect of the hedged forecasted transactions in a cash flow hedge. The Company may enter into derivative contracts that are intended to economically hedge a certain level of its risk, even though hedge accounting does not apply or the Company elects not to apply hedge accounting.

In accordance with the FASB’s fair value measurement guidance in ASU 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), the Company made an accounting policy election to measure the credit risk of its derivative financial instruments that are subject to master netting agreements on a net basis by counterparty portfolio.


Accounting Standards Adopted in 2023


ASU 2022-02, Troubled Debt Restructurings and Vintage Disclosures (Topic 326): The FASB amended the accounting and disclosure requirements for expected credit losses by removing the recognition and measurement guidance on TDRs and enhancing disclosures pertaining to certain loan refinancings and restructurings by creditors made to borrowers experiencing financial difficulty. Additionally, this standard requires disclosure of current-period gross write-offs by year of origination for financing receivables.


The standard became effective for the Company for the interim and annual periods beginning on January 1, 2023. The adoption of ASU 2022-02 did not have a material effect on the Company’s operating results or financial condition.


ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting: In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04 to ease the potential burden in accounting for reference rate reform. The amendments in ASU 2020-04 are elective and apply to all entities that have contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued due to reference rate reform.


ASU 2022-06, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848: In March 2021, it was announced LIBOR would cease on June 30, 2023. Because the current relief in Topic 848 may not cover a period of time during which a significant number of modifications may take place, the amendments in this ASU will be deferred to December 31, 2024.


The new guidance on Topic 848 provided several optional expedients that reduce costs and complexity of accounting for reference rate reform, including measures to simplify or modify accounting issues resulting from reference rate reform for contract modifications, hedges, and debt securities.


The adoption of ASU 2020-04 did not have a material effect on the Company’s operating results or financial condition.


Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Effective


ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures: In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09 to enhance the transparency and decision usefulness of income tax disclosures primarily related to income tax rate reconciliation and income taxes information. The amendments in ASU 2023-09 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. The adoption of ASU 2023-09 is not expected to have material effect on the Company’s operating results or financial condition.


ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Segment Reporting: In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07 to provide updates that improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures on significant segment expenses. The amendments in ASU 2023-07 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. The adoption of ASU 2023-07 is not expected to have material effect on the Company’s operating results or financial condition.